sábado, 31 de octubre de 2015
DESCRIPTION OF MYSELF AND MY FRIEND
I'm going to describe me and my friend José.
Our personalities are a bit difference. We love staying together, but he is always singing Justing Bieber's lyrics, and I don´t like it. We don't either extreme sports or french, that's common among us.
I am Kind , quiet and serious, and he is hyperactive, sleepy and funny.
So, in fact, our laugh is the same, I promise, some people look us because we're so noisy when we're laughing. Also, we both like photography, biology and blood, because we want to be doctors.
Finally, I talk about our appearance. He is tall, and so am I. We've got glasses. He has Green eyes and I've got brown eyes.
THIS IS US!
domingo, 8 de marzo de 2015
jueves, 5 de marzo de 2015
Eve, n artificially-intelligent 'robot scientist' could make drug discovery faster and much cheaper, say researchers writing in the Royal Society journal Interface. The team has demonstrated the success of the approach as Eve discovered that a compound shown to have anti-cancer properties might also be used in the fight against malaria. Robot scientists are a natural extension of the trend of increased involvement of automation in science. They can automatically develop and test hypotheses to explain observations, run experiments using laboratory robotics, interpret the results to amend their hypotheses, and then repeat the cycle, automating high-throughput hypothesis-led research. Robot scientists are also well suited to recording scientific knowledge: as the experiments are conceived and executed automatically by computer, it is possible to completely capture and digitally curate all aspects of the scientific process.
In 2009, Adam, a robot scientist developed by researchers at the Universities of Aberystwyth and Cambridge, became the first machine to independently discover new scientific knowledge. The same team has now developed Eve, based at the University of Manchester, whose purpose is to speed up the drug discovery process and make it more economical. In the study published today, they describe how the robot can help identify promising new drug candidates for malaria and neglected tropical diseases such as African sleeping sickness and Chagas' disease.
"Neglected tropical diseases are a scourge of humanity, infecting hundreds of millions of people, and killing millions of people every year," says Professor Steve Oliver from the Cambridge Systems Biology Centre and the Department of Biochemistry at the University of Cambridge. "We know what causes these diseases and that we can, in theory, attack the parasites that cause them using small molecule drugs. But the cost and speed of drug discovery and the economic return make them unattractive to the pharmaceutical industry.
"Eve exploits its artificial intelligence to learn from early successes in her screens and select compounds that have a high probability of being active against the chosen drug target. A smart screening system, based on genetically engineered yeast, is used. This allows Eve to exclude compounds that are toxic to cells and select those that block the action of the parasite protein while leaving any equivalent human protein unscathed. This reduces the costs, uncertainty, and time involved in drug screening, and has the potential to improve the lives of millions of people worldwide."
Eve is designed to automate early-stage drug design. First, she systematically tests each member from a large set of compounds in the standard brute-force way of conventional mass screening. The compounds are screened against assays (tests) designed to be automatically engineered, and can be generated much faster and more cheaply than the bespoke assays that are currently standard. This enables more types of assay to be applied, more efficient use of screening facilities to be made, and thereby increases the probability of a discovery within a given budget.
Eve's robotic system is capable of screening over 10,000 compounds per day. However, while simple to automate, mass screening is still relatively slow and wasteful of resources as every compound in the library is tested. It is also unintelligent, as it makes no use of what is learnt during screening.
To improve this process, Eve selects at random a subset of the library to find compounds that pass the first assay; any 'hits' are re-tested multiple times to reduce the probability of false positives. Taking this set of confirmed hits, Eve uses statistics and machine learning to predict new structures that might score better against the assays. Although she currently does not have the ability to synthesise such compounds, future versions of the robot could potentially incorporate this feature.
Professor Ross King, from the Manchester Institute of Biotechnology at the University of Manchester, says: "Every industry now benefits from automation and science is no exception. Bringing in machine learning to make this process intelligent -- rather than just a 'brute force' approach -- could greatly speed up scientific progress and potentially reap huge rewards."
To test the viability of the approach, the researchers developed assays targeting key molecules from parasites responsible for diseases such as malaria, Chagas' disease and schistosomiasis and tested against these a library of approximately 1,500 clinically approved compounds. Through this, Eve showed that a compound that has previously been investigated as an anti-cancer drug inhibits a key molecule known as DHFR in the malaria parasite. Drugs that inhibit this molecule are currently routinely used to protect against malaria, and are given to over a million children; however, the emergence of strains of parasites resistant to existing drugs means that the search for new drugs is becoming increasingly more urgent.
"Despite extensive efforts, no one has been able to find a new antimalarial that targets DHFR and is able to pass clinical trials," adds Professor King. "Eve's discovery could be even more significant than just demonstrating a new approach to drug discovery."
The research was supported by the Biotechnology & Biological Sciences Research Council and the European Commission.
Eve, the robot scientist
domingo, 22 de febrero de 2015
lunes, 16 de febrero de 2015
Political tensions in Argentina reached precarious heights on Friday when a prosecutor announced that he would continue investigating cover-up allegations against President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner in a case that his late colleague, Alberto Nisman, had been working on at the time of his mysterious death.The president, Foreign Minister Héctor Timerman and other officials have been named as suspects by the new prosecutor for allegedly trying to whitewash the involvement of a group of Iranians in the 1994 bombing of the AMIA Jewish community center in Buenos Aires, in which 85 people died.
Nisman had filed the original case on January 14, just days before his body was found in his apartment with a fatal gunshot wound to the head. He was due to appear in Congress to explain his charges.
Without mentioning the decision taken by newly appointed prosecutor Gerardo Pollicita, Fernández de Kirchner on Sunday appeared defiant during a national televised address. Her government has repeatedly denied the allegations made by Nisman that the president was trying to reach a grain-for-oil pact with Iran in exchange for impunity against the Iranian officials wanted in the car-bombing attack. Prosecutor Pollicita has not yet called for the president, Timerman or the ruling party deputy Andrés Larroque, among others, to testify in court. Judge Daniel Rafecas, who cut his vacation short after he was assigned the case, may begin the inquiry on Wednesday, when he is scheduled to return to his courtroom. Rafecas may have had time to read the 290-page writ, which the government ordered unsealed following Nisman’s death and posted on the internet. Some officials, including the president, believe that the complaint is inconsistent and may have not been written by Nisman.
Various legal experts consulted by the Buenos Aires daily La Nación have said that it would have been an uphill battle for Nisman to try to prove his cover-up theory in court. Even journalists who have been critical of the government have stated publicly that the complaint is weak and is based mostly on newspaper articles.
But while the opposition is warning of a “serious institutional crisis” and is demanding that justice be served, Pollicita believes there are enough elements to push the case forward.
The Fernández de Kirchner government has tried to link Pollicita with opposition leader Mauricio Macri, the Buenos Aires governor and former president of Boca Juniors Soccer Club, given that the prosecutor held various administrative posts with the team.
Cabinet secretary Jorge Capitanich has warned that Pollicita’s complaint forms part of a judicial coup against the government.
Argentineans will go to the polls on October 25 to elect a new president. Fernández de Kirchner is barred under the Constitution from running for a third term and only has 10 months left in office. Nevertheless, she and her Cabinet officials have warned of “plots to destabilize” democracy, including staging a possible coup.
The Nisman case has polarized the entire nation. The mysterious circumstances surrounding the death of the 55-year-old prosecutor conjures up painful memories for many Argentineans, who for decades lived under the shadow of contract murders and secret police operations concocted from the Casa Rosada presidential palace.
Many Argentineans doubt that Nisman committed suicide.
A group of prosecutors, judges and other officials announced a silent marchset for Wednesday in Buenos Aires to demand justice for Nisman. The rally has been criticized by some sectors of society.
Two days after Pollicita decided to reactivate the case, the president wrote on her Facebook page: “You know what? We will leave them with their hate, insults, infamy and slander.”
Cristina Fernández Kirchner, President of Argentina